You can download Eily’s presentation on the Colosseum: The Colosseum
When was the Circus built?
The Circus Maximus was originally built in the sixth century BCE. Permanent starting gates were constructed in 329 BCE, and they were rebuilt in 174 BCE. Julius Caesar lengthened the track and built a euripus (water filled channel) around it in 46 BCE. In 33 BCE, Agrippa supplemented the large wooden eggs used for marking laps with seven bronze dolphins instead. In 31 BCE, a fire destroyed most of the Circus, and Augustus rebuilt it, and added an imperial box, or a pulvinar. In 10 BCE, an obelisk was erected as a dedication to the sun, and as a monument for the conquest of Egypt. Finally, in 80 CE, Trajan restored the temple to greater than ever before after a fire, changing some seats into marble, making massive columns and arches on the sides, adding walkways between seats, and allowing men and women to sit together.
Where, why, how, and by whom was the Circus built?
The circus was built by Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome. By the time of the building of the Circus, chariot races were already happening near the site of the building. The building simply gave an official venue in which the races could occur. Part of the building of the Circus involved rechanneling a river to make a boundary for the track. The circus was the first of its kind to be built, and the channeling of the river, the massive sandy track, and the seats around the edges marked one of the original sport stadiums. It was located in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills. When it was rebuilt in 80 CE, massive arches, and marble seating were added, making this into a truly magnificent example of a Roman sports stadium. Other chariot tracks built around the Empire were modeled on the circus. The circus was originally mostly made out of wood, as the seats were on raised wooden platforms, and the starting gates were wood, but in 80 CE, marble was added. While the Circus was built for chariot races, gladiator games and animal hunts were staged there as well.
What were the important structural and artistic features of the Circus?
Like major racing stadiums today, the starting areas were staggered so the total distances was the same. The arches were another important structural feature of the Circus, one of the features that would, and had, become iconic in Roman architecture. Columns were also a very important feature of the Circus, making it look extremely impressive on the outside. A very important feature, both structural and artistic, was the Euripus, a moat around the outside to protect the spectators from wild animals. There was a sweeping curve at both ends of the track, called the sphendone, and this was where many crashes would have occurred. An important artistic feature was the metae, turning posts with seven bronze dolphins on them to mark the laps.
What was the usage and significance of the Circus Maximus in the Roman world?
The Circus Maximus, and Circuses in general, were one of the most important features of Ancient Rome. The Circus itself was used extremely often, with seventy-seven days devoted to racing at one point, and twenty four races a day after Caligula. Four factions dominated the Circus, Red, White, Blue, and Green, with Blue and Green being the most important. The Roman populace loved the games, and often used them as an excuse to petition the Emperor, or even attempt to crown new ones after the Emperor’s death sometimes. Each race in the Circus had seven laps, and would have been upwards of three miles long. Deaths were common at the races, with risks including being run over by chariots, having an enemy’s whip knock you off, or simply dying in a chariot crash. Sometimes, victory by a particular faction would result in disastrous riots, with portions of the populace being killed. There was an intense rivalry between factions, as the individual racers, or supporters often tried to kill or curse each other. Probably nothing, except for the gladiatorial games, was as popular as chariot racing was in Rome.
Other interesting information about the Circus Maximus:
Many emperors were especially brutal in their handling of crowds at a circus, such as Caligula. He once simply killed all citizens who were demanding lowered taxes until they stopped complaining. The Circus remained as a sports stadium until 550 CE. This was around the end of the importance of the city of Rome. It was never used for other events, and quickly fell into ruin with the rest of the city.
“Circus Maximus.” Circus Maximus. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. <http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/circusmaximus/circusmaximus.html>.
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History, 3rd ed. Worcester: Davis Publications Inc. 1997
Thompson, Nancy L. “Roman Art”. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007
“Circus Maximus.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Aug. 2012. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circus_Maximus>.
Who built it and Why
Purpose and How it was made
IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV ·
DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE ·
OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PVBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM ·
TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT
To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he,
inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of
his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have
dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.
“Arch of Constantine.” – Smarthistory. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. <http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/arch-of-constantine.html>.
“Triumphal Arches of Titus, Septimius Severus, and Constantine.” Arch of Constantine. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. <http://web.mit.edu/course/21/21h.405/www/ArchesOfTitus/constantine-art.html>.
“Arch of Constantine.” Arch of Constantine. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. <http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/romanurbs/archconstantine.html>.
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History 3rd Ed. Worcester Davis Publicant Inc. 1997
Thompson, Nanny L. “Roman Art“ New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007
– The Arch of Titus was built in 81 AD. In the 11th century the Frangipani family had a fortress built surrounding the Arch. In 1821 it was restored by Giuseppe Valadier. And then in between 1822 and 1823 they outer parts were rebuilt using travertine (opposed to the initial marble) this way we are able to differentiate the original pieces and the restored parts.
-This was built at the “Forum Romanum” “at the highest point of the “Via Sacra” “
-It was built in commemoration of the victory of the Jewish Zealots. As well as in honor of Emperor Titus, who died of a fever in year 81.
-The arch was built by Titusʼ brother Domitian.
-Although it is unclear who actually made or at least participated in making the Arch what is clear is that it was commissioned by Emperor Domitian. And they incorporated a Flavian style. This style can be identiﬁed through the simplicity of the general shape and even some of the pictures on the arch.
-The Arch of Titus is created from a “Pentelic marble” and it sits on top of a travertine (a type of limestone) base. They used a white marble which often signiﬁed wealth and had an overall positive connotation. Structurally, the Arch gets its strength from its “voussoirʼs” which means “Wedge shaped stone or brick”, making the curved format possible. (very common when it comes to building vaults and arches). Different parts of the arch have different names. Approaching from the front the part that sticks out the most is called the archʼs “barrel vault”(depth of 4.75 m), the archway was 8.3m high and 5.36m wide. Also the Arch of Titus was supposedly the ﬁrst of its kind to combine Ionic and Corinthian styles to create “Composite order”.
-The Arch of Titus was not something to be used practically, rather to be looked upon symbolically. The Arch signiﬁed the victory of the Jewish people in the Jewish war. The fact that the Arch is still standing is also signiﬁcant, this proves that the defeat was not a temporary victory, rather a long term life changing event.
– A cool fact about the arch is the oldest surviving Roman arch. And on the inside of the two panels are pictures or “reliefs” one side depicting the Triumphal procession with the spoils taken from the second temple in Jerusalem. The other showing Titus being carried in a chariot accompanied by the Goddesses Victoria and Roma.
Background and significance in ancient Rome:
– The Pantheon was created by Marcus Agrippa during his time in consulship in 27 B.C.
– It burned down twice and the final Pantheon as it is known today was made in 80 A.D. by Hadrian. Hadrian not wanting to take away Agrippa’s glory has Agrippa’s name still on it.
– It is located in the city of Rome in the exact area which is known as the place where Romulus died, and was where an eagle picked up his body and brought him up to the heavens.
– The Pantheon’s history is still not fully known, but it is known that it was a temple to all the gods, but the nature of the ceremonies done in its heyday.
– The main reason it is in such good condition today is because possession of the building was handed over to the Roman Catholic Church by Emperor Phocas of Byzantine.
– Today it serves as a Church and has done so since its creation, today though it has marble columns and other decorations to impress
The Pantheon’s Construction:
– It was built only with the introduction of concrete into Roman construction, for it allowed them to form the basic dome which is its most important feature.
– It was likely constructed by using intricate wooden scaffolding and the dome itself was made from a single mold of Concrete which was then reinforced with bricks.
– The building itself is completely round save for the entrance which is a square.
– The entrance has elements of Greek architecture in the form of a pediment, as well originally played out the scene of the battle with the titans.
– The top of the dome is best known for its oculus which is a skylight and the only source of light in the building.
– The building is built with a special concave floor which will cause rain to cleanly dry out of the building through an intricate drainage system.
greatbuildings.com. “Pantheon.” http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Pantheon.html. web.
2012. August 23, 2012.
Rodolpho Lanciani. “Pantheon.” http://aabbeatv.com/Pantheon/Pantheon.html. web. February 3,
2000. August 23, 2012.
rome.info. “Roman Pantheon.” http://www.rome.info/pantheon/. web. 2009. August 23, 2012.
Epicureanism is a philosophy built on the foundation of realism.Founded by Epicurus,
once a student at Platoʼs Academy who later went on and branched off into a life of
seclusion and moderation with his followers. This school of thought directly correlates
to the way Epicurus himself lived his life. Epicurus was a man who was clearly
content with his life, one of the issues Epicurus sets out to solve is the fear that was
so prevalent in ancient times. The idea of life after death was and is a huge basis of
uncertainty within society and through the use of physics and “atomistic materialism”
epicureanism tries to address the fact that you will die and that is the end, not exactly
a happy ending but a realist perspective nonetheless.
1. You must be open minded and willing to accept the ideas that are preached.
2.You must not hide in blissfulness or ignorance, you must be willing to accept reality
and face it head on only then can you reach solace.
3. You must be able to welcome death.The roots of epicureanism is basically that you
must accept the idea of death before no longer fearing it and with that fear still within
you, you will not reach true happiness.
4. You must be open to a scientiﬁc perspective as well opposed to a strictly
philosophical standpoint.Much of the school is dependent on the scientiﬁc theories
proposed and therefore making it crucial to be accepted universally.\
5. Finally, as an epicurean you must welcome moderation with open arms.
Epicureanism is not about materialistic endeavors rather, personal deﬁnitions of
pleasure. Achieving pleasure through simplicity is the most practical and rational way
possible. Whether it be that you are not ﬁnancially stable enough to enjoy lifeʼs luxuries
or you just do not wish to, the importance of enjoying the simpler things is extremely
1) Encyclopedia of World Biography | 2004 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Epicurus.aspx
2) 2003-2012 University Press Inc http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Epicurus/
3) The Epicurus & Epicurean Philosophy web site 1996- http://www.epicurus.net/
Cynicism, like most schools of philosophy, originated in Ancient Athens. The principal beliefs of Cynicism involved ascetic lifestyles and few possessions, as well as being in harmony with nature. The founder of cynicism is usually credited as Diogenes of Sinope, famous for living on the streets of Athens in a tub, and often called the dog man for his lifestyle. He begged for a living. He had no possessions. At one point, he was captured by pirates and decided to live in Corinth instead. The other person usually credited with the founding of Cynicism is Antisthenes, an extremely sarcastic philosopher. Alexander the Great once said that if he could be anyone except himself, he would be Antisthenes. Antisthenes died around 80 years old, and was a follower of Socrates. Cynicism had a great impact on some prominent members of Greek society, notably Crates of Thebes, who renounced a large fortune to live a life of Cynic poverty. Cynicism gradually faded away around 5th Century BCE, although some say that early Christians used some of its principle beliefs.
“Cynicism.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 June 2012. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynicism>.
“Cynicism and Stoicism.” Cynicism and Stoicism. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/stoicism.html>.
“Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.” Antisthenes. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/antisthe/>.
“Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.” Diogenes of Sinope. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/diogsino/>.