The Pantheon (By Elliot)

Background and significance in ancient Rome:

–        The Pantheon was created by Marcus Agrippa during his time in consulship in 27 B.C.

–        It burned down twice and the final Pantheon as it is known today was made in 80 A.D. by Hadrian. Hadrian not wanting to take away Agrippa’s glory has Agrippa’s name still on it.

–        It is located in the city of Rome in the exact area which is known as the place where Romulus died, and was where an eagle picked up his body and brought him up to the heavens.

–        The Pantheon’s history is still not fully known, but it is known that it was a temple to all the gods, but the nature of the ceremonies done in its heyday.

–        The main reason it is in such good condition today is because possession of the building was handed over to the Roman Catholic Church by Emperor Phocas of Byzantine.

–        Today it serves as a Church and has done so since its creation, today though it has marble columns and other decorations to impress

 

The Pantheon’s Construction:

–        It was built only with the introduction of concrete into Roman construction, for it allowed them to form the basic dome which is its most important feature.

–        It was likely constructed by using intricate wooden scaffolding and the dome itself was made from a single mold of Concrete which was then reinforced with bricks.

–        The building itself is completely round save for the entrance which is a square.

–        The entrance has elements of Greek architecture in the form of a pediment, as well originally played out the scene of the battle with the titans.

–        The top of the dome is best known for its oculus which is a skylight and the only source of light in the building.

–        The building is built with a special concave floor which will cause rain to cleanly dry out of the building through an intricate drainage system.

The Pantheon Today

In Roman Times

The Oculus

Works Cited

greatbuildings.com.  “Pantheon.”  http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Pantheon.html.  web.

2012.  August 23, 2012.

Rodolpho Lanciani.  “Pantheon.”  http://aabbeatv.com/Pantheon/Pantheon.html.  web.  February 3,

2000.  August 23, 2012.

Thayer, William P.  “Pantheon.”

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/Pantheon.html.  web.  October 12, 2007.  August 23, 2012.

italyguides.it.  “The Pantheon of the Roman Gods.”  http://www.italyguides.it/us/roma/pantheon.htm.  web.  2012.  August 23, 2012.

rome.info.  “Roman Pantheon.”  http://www.rome.info/pantheon/.  web.  2009.  August 23, 2012.

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Hannibal’s so puny…uh…Punic.

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SPQR PWNED

The decline of the Roman Republic in the 3rd and 2nd Century BCE – a review of the Robin Lane Fox chapters that we read, examining the Roman attitudes toward luxury, and the struggles between some populist reformers and traditionalists including

  • Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
  • Sulla
  • Marius
  • Cato the Elder

 

Spartacus and the Slave Revolt

 

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Greek and Etruscan Influences on Rome

Read the blurbs on this website and note the Greek or Etruscan innovation that influenced Roman civilization:

Greek and Etruscan Influences on Rome

 

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Greece Unit Test

 

Good luck!

Part 1: Short answers

Part 2: Visual interpretation

Part 3: Primary document analysis

Part 4: Mapping 

 

Topic People, Gods etc. Places Key terms & concepts
Minoan & Mycenaean Civilization –       Minos

–       Agamemnon

–       Pasiphae

–       Theseus

–       Crete

–       Knossos

–       Mycenae

–       Linear A

–       Linear B

–       Labyrinth

–       Minotaur

–       Bronze Age

History –       Herodotus

–       Thucydides

–       Classical

–       Freedom

–       Justice

–       Luxury

–       Archaic Age

–       Alphabet

Homeric Epics, Mythology & Heroes –       Homer

–       Odysseus

–       Achilles

–       Helen

–       Penelope

–       Heracles

–       Pandora

–       Prometheus

–       Epimetheus

–       Minotaur

–       Troy

–       Aegean Sea

–       Ionian Sea

–       Xenia

–       Hubris

–       Epic

–       Iliad

–       Odyssey

–       Age of Heroes

–       Fate

–       Monomyth

–       Hero

–       Colonization of the mediterranean

Religion –       Hesiod

–       Zeus

–       Dionysus

–       Hades

–       Athena

–       Persephone

–       Hera

–       Demeter

–       Ares

–       Eros

–       Aphrodite

–       Poseidon

–       Satyrs

–       Hermes

–       Delphic oracle

–       Mt. Olympus

–       Hades

–       Delphi

–       Theogony

–       Works and Days

Geography –       Mediterranean

–       Asia Minor

–       Peloponnesus

–       Mainland Greece

–       Climate, geography & its impact

–       Mapping

Greco-Persian Wars –       Xerxes

–       Cyrus

–       Darius

–       The 300

–       Militades

–       Marathon

–       Thermopylae

–       Hellespont

–       Salamis

–       Palataea

–       Trireme

–       Phalanx

–       Hoplite

Peloponnesian War –       Pericles

–       Alcibiades

–       Sparta

–       Athens

–       Sparta

–       Athens

–       Plague of Athens

–       Delian League

–       Peloponnesian League

Sparta – Lycurgus

– Perioikoi

– Helots

–       Oligarchy

–       Ephors

–       Gerousia

–       Assembly of Citizens

–       Peloponnesian League

–       Helots

–       Agoge

Greek Society (men, women, slaves, children, foreigners) –       Women in Sparta

–       Women in Athens

–       Education of boys & girls

–       Marriage

City States, Government –       Solon

–       Draco

–       Cleisthenes

–       Lawgivers

–       Tyrants

–       Polis

–       Government of poleis

–       Agora

–       Theatre

–       Athletics

–       Social structure of Greek city states (metics, slaves, eupatrids etc.)

Theatre –       Chorus

–       Sophocles

–       Euripides

–       Aeschylus

– Theatre of Dionysus –       Tragedy

–       Satyr play

–       Festival of Dionysus

–       Pathos

–       Hypokrites

Poetry –       Sappho –       Lyric poetry

–       Epic poetry

–       Elegiac Poetry

Art & Architecture – Polyclitus

– Phidias

–       Parthenon

–       Doric

–       Ionic

–       Corinthian

–       Golden Mean

–       Geometric

–       Hellenistic

–       Classical

–       Archaic

–       Kouros/Kore

–       Red/Black Figure ware

–       Amphora

–       Influence of other cultures

Philosophy & thought –       Plato

–       Socrates

–       Aristotle

–       Hippocrates

–       Academy

–       Lyceum

–       Forms

–       Allegory of the Cave

–       Socratic Method

–       Symposium

–       Hippocratic oath

–       Four humors

–       Metaphysics

–       Epistemology

–       Republic

Classical Athens –       Pericles

–       Eupatrids

–       Metics

–       Council of 500

–       Assembly

–       Piraeus

–       Attica

–       Council of 500

–       Aeropagos

–       Direct Democracy

–       Ostracism

–       Acropolis

Hellenistic Greece –       Alexander the Great

–       Philip II

–       Ptolemy

–       Seleucis

–       Siwa Oracle

–       Roxanne

–       Olympias

–       Darius III

–       Bucephalus

–       Macedon

–       Babylonia

–       Thebes

–       Alexandria (Egypt)

–       Issus

–       Hydaspes

–       Tyre

–       Gaugamela

–       Granicus

–       Hellenism

–       Sarissa

–       Outer Ocean

–       Military advances of Alexander and Philip II

–       Successor kingdoms

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Pleasure is key so slow down and enjoy!

Epicureanism is a philosophy built on the foundation of realism.Founded by Epicurus,

once a student at Platoʼs Academy who later went on and branched off into a life of

seclusion and moderation with his followers. This school of thought directly correlates

to the way Epicurus himself lived his life. Epicurus was a man who was clearly

content with his life, one of the issues Epicurus sets out to solve is the fear that was

so prevalent in ancient times. The idea of life after death was and is a huge basis of

uncertainty within society and through the use of physics and “atomistic materialism”

epicureanism tries to address the fact that you will die and that is the end, not exactly

a happy ending but a realist perspective nonetheless.

Pleasure is not about flashy, materialistic possessions. As long as something holds
intrinsic value pleasure and ultimately happiness is attainable.

1. You must be open minded and willing to accept the ideas that are preached.

2.You must not hide in blissfulness or ignorance, you must be willing to accept reality
and face it head on only then can you reach solace.

3. You must be able to welcome death.The roots of epicureanism is basically that you
must accept the idea of death before no longer fearing it and with that fear still within
you, you will not reach true happiness.

4. You must be open to a scientific perspective as well opposed to a strictly
philosophical standpoint.Much of the school is dependent on the scientific theories
proposed and therefore making it crucial to be accepted universally.\

5. Finally, as an epicurean you must welcome moderation with open arms.
Epicureanism is not about materialistic endeavors rather, personal definitions of
pleasure. Achieving pleasure through simplicity is the most practical and rational way
possible. Whether it be that you are not financially stable enough to enjoy lifeʼs luxuries
or you just do not wish to, the importance of enjoying the simpler things is extremely
clear.

 

1) Encyclopedia of World Biography | 2004 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Epicurus.aspx

2) 2003-2012 University Press Inc http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Epicurus/

3) The Epicurus & Epicurean Philosophy web site 1996- http://www.epicurus.net/

4) http://www.epicurus.net/en/history.html

5) http://atheism.about.com/library/glossary/general/bldef_epicureanism.htm -Blog

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Come live a perfect ascetic lifestyle, and join the cynics! (By Tyler)

Facts about Cynicism:

Cynicism, like most schools of philosophy, originated in Ancient Athens. The principal beliefs of Cynicism involved ascetic lifestyles and few possessions, as well as being in harmony with nature. The founder of cynicism is usually credited as Diogenes of Sinope, famous for living on the streets of Athens in a tub, and often called the dog man for his lifestyle. He begged for a living. He had no possessions. At one point, he was captured by pirates and decided to live in Corinth instead. The other person usually credited with the founding of Cynicism is Antisthenes, an extremely sarcastic philosopher. Alexander the Great once said that if he could be anyone except himself, he would be Antisthenes. Antisthenes died around 80 years old, and was a follower of Socrates. Cynicism had a great impact on some prominent members of Greek society, notably Crates of Thebes, who renounced a large fortune to live a life of Cynic poverty. Cynicism gradually faded away around 5th Century BCE, although some say that early Christians used some of its principle beliefs.

The famous Cynic Diogenes of Sinope, his tub, and some dogs on the streets of Athens. Note the lack of possessions, and general look of poverty.

Five tips for how to become the perfect Cynic:

  1. You must be prepared to renounce all possessions, fame, wealth, and power if you want to be a prominent Cynic.
  2. To be truly happy, you must be self-sufficient, and happiness is the chief virtue of Cynics.
  3. You must be shameless to be a Cynic.
  4. You must be indifferent to insults.
  5. As a Cynic, it is your job to hound people about the error of their ways.

Citations:

“Cynicism.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 June 2012. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynicism>.

 

“Cynicism and Stoicism.” Cynicism and Stoicism. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/stoicism.html>.

 

“Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.” Antisthenes. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/antisthe/>.

 

“Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.” Diogenes of Sinope. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/diogsino/>.

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