Tag Archives: rome

Exam Review Chart (Rome) – filled in & a map courtesy of Tyler

Here is the comprehensive chart for Rome that we made today in class. The Greece chart is already online.

Topic People Places Key Terms & Concepts
Etruscans Servius Tullius

Tarquinius Superbus

Tarquinius Priscus

Etruria Necropolis

Art, metalwork, terracotta


Etruscan women

Origins of Etruscans

Relationships with other civilizations

Written language

Importance of archaeological record

 Geography   Central Mediterranean

Italian peninsula

Western orientation






Apennine Mountains

Influence on economy, defense, society

Compare to Greek geography & civilization

Founding Myths Virgil






Sabine women




Tiber River



What these myths tell us about Roman values

Function of myth in the state

Law Justinian Forum


Twelve Tables

Justinian Code

Civic, Natural, Law of Nations

Public and Private law



Republic Tiberius Gracchus

Gaius Gracchus







Res Publica


Checks and balances

Assembly of Centuries

Rhetoric & oration

Patricians & Plebeians – struggle of the orders

Patron/Client relationship

Tax farming

Public works


Pyrrhic & Punic War Hannibal








Pyrrhic Victory

Loyalty of Italians in their alliance wtih Rome

Important battles

Beginning of Rome as a superpower

Money, slave, tax revenue

Naval power of Rome

Military organization

Decline of Republic Julius Caesar





Mark Antony






Assassination of JC – public’s reaction, deification

Dictator for life


Problems in the Republic – tax, unemployment, poverty, land issues, grain prices, crime, unequal access to voting and public office

Religion Pontifex Maximus

Vestal Virgins





The Pantheon (Juno, Jupiter etc.)







Religio – binding force

Quid pro quo & practical religion

Greek gods in Roman dress

State co-opting religion

Public and private religion


Art & Architecture   Colosseum


Arch of Titus

Arch of Constantine

Aqueduct of Segovia

Circus Maximus




Portraiture and propaganda

Art and empire


Greek influence

Public works


Intellectual Achievements & Entertainment Virgil







Pliny the Elder







How literature relates to the state


Roman Empire Tiberius








Marcus Aurelius



East/West empire

Empire at its largest





Pax Romana

Legions – how the army changed during the Empire

Fall of Empire Romulus Augustulus



3rd Century emperors

Where the Barbarians came from (Mongolia, Germany, Gaul etc) Why it fell?

Did it fall?

What is an empire

Legacy of Roman Empire

Collapse – social, economic, military, cultural, and political aspects

Tyler just found this GIF that shows the expansion of the Roman territories – watch Rome grow!


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The Arch of Titus (by Nick)

Inscriptions on the arch meaning: The Roman Senate and
People to Deified Titus, Vespasian Augustus, son of Deified
Vespasian’ were originally in bronze. The reliefs were also
colored and the arch was topped by a bronze quadriga.

– The Arch of Titus was built in 81 AD. In the 11th century the Frangipani family had a fortress built surrounding the Arch. In 1821 it was restored by Giuseppe Valadier. And then in between 1822 and 1823 they outer parts were rebuilt using travertine (opposed to the initial marble) this way we are able to differentiate the original pieces and the restored parts.

Inscriptions on the arch meaning: The Roman Senate and
People to Deified Titus, Vespasian Augustus, son of Deified
Vespasian’ were originally in bronze. The reliefs were also
colored and the arch was topped by a bronze quadriga.

-This was built at the “Forum Romanum” “at the highest point of the “Via Sacra” “
-It was built in commemoration of the victory of the Jewish Zealots. As well as in honor of Emperor Titus, who died of a fever in year 81.
-The arch was built by Titusʼ brother Domitian.

-Although it is unclear who actually made or at least participated in making the Arch what is clear is that it was commissioned by Emperor Domitian. And they incorporated a Flavian style. This style can be identified through the simplicity of the general shape and even some of the pictures on the arch.

-The Arch of Titus is created from a “Pentelic marble” and it sits on top of a travertine (a type of limestone) base. They used a white marble which often signified wealth and had an overall positive connotation. Structurally, the Arch gets its strength from its “voussoirʼs” which means “Wedge shaped stone or brick”, making the curved format possible. (very common when it comes to building vaults and arches). Different parts of the arch have different names. Approaching from the front the part that sticks out the most is called the archʼs “barrel vault”(depth of 4.75 m), the archway was 8.3m high and 5.36m wide. Also the Arch of Titus was supposedly the first of its kind to combine Ionic and Corinthian styles to create “Composite order”.

-The Arch of Titus was not something to be used practically, rather to be looked upon symbolically. The Arch signified the victory of the Jewish people in the Jewish war. The fact that the Arch is still standing is also significant, this proves that the defeat was not a temporary victory, rather a long term life changing event.

– A cool fact about the arch is the oldest surviving Roman arch. And on the inside of the two panels are pictures or “reliefs” one side depicting the Triumphal procession with the spoils taken from the second temple in Jerusalem. The other showing Titus being carried in a chariot accompanied by the Goddesses Victoria and Roma.


A painting of the Arch by
Canaletto depicting what it
would look like in ancient times.

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The Pantheon (By Elliot)

Background and significance in ancient Rome:

–        The Pantheon was created by Marcus Agrippa during his time in consulship in 27 B.C.

–        It burned down twice and the final Pantheon as it is known today was made in 80 A.D. by Hadrian. Hadrian not wanting to take away Agrippa’s glory has Agrippa’s name still on it.

–        It is located in the city of Rome in the exact area which is known as the place where Romulus died, and was where an eagle picked up his body and brought him up to the heavens.

–        The Pantheon’s history is still not fully known, but it is known that it was a temple to all the gods, but the nature of the ceremonies done in its heyday.

–        The main reason it is in such good condition today is because possession of the building was handed over to the Roman Catholic Church by Emperor Phocas of Byzantine.

–        Today it serves as a Church and has done so since its creation, today though it has marble columns and other decorations to impress


The Pantheon’s Construction:

–        It was built only with the introduction of concrete into Roman construction, for it allowed them to form the basic dome which is its most important feature.

–        It was likely constructed by using intricate wooden scaffolding and the dome itself was made from a single mold of Concrete which was then reinforced with bricks.

–        The building itself is completely round save for the entrance which is a square.

–        The entrance has elements of Greek architecture in the form of a pediment, as well originally played out the scene of the battle with the titans.

–        The top of the dome is best known for its oculus which is a skylight and the only source of light in the building.

–        The building is built with a special concave floor which will cause rain to cleanly dry out of the building through an intricate drainage system.

The Pantheon Today

In Roman Times

The Oculus

Works Cited

greatbuildings.com.  “Pantheon.”  http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Pantheon.html.  web.

2012.  August 23, 2012.

Rodolpho Lanciani.  “Pantheon.”  http://aabbeatv.com/Pantheon/Pantheon.html.  web.  February 3,

2000.  August 23, 2012.

Thayer, William P.  “Pantheon.”

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/Pantheon.html.  web.  October 12, 2007.  August 23, 2012.

italyguides.it.  “The Pantheon of the Roman Gods.”  http://www.italyguides.it/us/roma/pantheon.htm.  web.  2012.  August 23, 2012.

rome.info.  “Roman Pantheon.”  http://www.rome.info/pantheon/.  web.  2009.  August 23, 2012.

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The decline of the Roman Republic in the 3rd and 2nd Century BCE – a review of the Robin Lane Fox chapters that we read, examining the Roman attitudes toward luxury, and the struggles between some populist reformers and traditionalists including

  • Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
  • Sulla
  • Marius
  • Cato the Elder


Spartacus and the Slave Revolt


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The…ploof…of Rome

Today we did some excellent historical research, using a handful of secondary sources to compile a list of factors that led to the fall of Rome:

  • Move of the seat of power to Constantinople
  • Persian Empire centralizes power
  • Northern tribes (Gaul + Germany) unite in Gallic Empire
  • Climate change – agricultural and economic downturn
  • Migration of Northern people
  • Class polarization
  • Internal strife – apathy and lack of civic unity
  • Usurping emperors in 3rd Century, civil wars
  • Military  made up of foreign mercenaries
  • invasions of non-Roman outsiders
  • Multiculturalism – nation of immigrants
  • Empire is too big
  • Visigoths migrate and rampage
  • Bureaucratic nightmare
  • Collapse of military pride
  • Visigoths sack Rome (410) – more of a psychological assault
  • Vandals in Gaul, Spain, Britain (Anglo-Saxons move in) – territorial decline
  • Vandals sack Rome (455), then move into North Africa and disrupt trade
  • Romulus Augustus is deposed (476)
  • Loss of tax base
  • Militarization of landowners
  • Unemployment
  • Decline in education and literacy

Then we scored each point  on a scale of 0-10 – no impact to catastrophic impact. The five highest scoring points conveniently fit into 5 different categories:

1) Apathy and internal strife: social problem

2) Empire is too big: political problem – ungovernable

3) Decline in education and literacy: cultural problem, which leads to economic problems

4) Collapse of military pride: military problem – no longer defensible

5) Disruption of trade: economic decline


An empire needs to be governable, defensible, culturally and economically strong, and it has to have subjects who want to be a part of it!


Then we threw it all out the window and looked at the Roman empire not as falling but as evolving into the middle ages, the culture of the Church, the lord-serf relationship, and the foundation of much of Western culture.

Also…this guy:

Fall of Rome Song

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Mapping the Roman Empire

Use the interactive maps on the Roman Empire website as well as your notes and other course materials to create a map with a detailed legend.

1) Label the following places on the blank map and write 1-2 sentences about the significance of each one in the Roman Empire:

  1. North Sea           
  2. Germania           
  3. Thrace                       
  4. Rome
  5. Spain
  6. Gaul           
  7. Constantinople
  8. Britain           
  9. Alexandria
  10. Sicily
  11. Troy           
  12. Judea
  13. Carthage     

2) Using the blank map provided, indicate the borders of Rome at the following points in history:

  1. After the Punic Wars
  2. After the death of Caesar
  3. At its greatest extent                                                                                                                                                     

3) On a separate page, note the significant territories conquered during each of these periods.

4) On the left is a modern day countries menu. How many countries today would have been influenced by the Roman Empire (if the Roman Empire even touches the country, include it in your count)?

5) Click on the Barbarian Incursions menu at the bottom. Indicate on your map (using an arrow) where each of these barbarian tribes began their attack on the Roman Empire. Make sure to include these different arrows in your legend.

–   Franks

–    Huns

–   Visigoths

–   Vandals

–   Alemmani



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Roman Intellectual Achievements…when bread and circuses are not enough

We had a very productive afternoon today – you impressed me with your ability to identify English words with Latin origins, interpret Justinian legal code, and appreciate the biting satire of Juvenal.

Here is the satire video that we watched today – made by a very intelligent teenage girl,  in case you’re interested:

And here is today’s PowerPoint: roman intellectual history

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